Extended Language Support
The product of an ongoing research project into orthography, Whitney’s character set includes extended variations of the Latin, Greek, and Cyrillic alphabets, covering more than 200 languages worldwide.
Whitney Extended Latin
As an extension to the traditional Latin-1 character set that covers only the national languages of the largest Western European countries, fonts from H&Co include an additional character set we’ve developed called Latin-X, which helps reach another 200 million readers worldwide. Fonts with Latin-X cover both Western and Central Europe, as well as minority languages spoken by large populations throughout the world.
The Latin-X™ character set covers Afaan Oromo, Afrikaans, Albanian, Alsatian, Aragonese, Arapaho, Arrernte, Asturian, Aymara, Basque, Bislama, Blackfoot, Bosnian, Breton, Catalan, Cebuano, Chamorro, Cheyenne, Cimbrian, Corsican, Croatian, Czech, Dalecarlian, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Faroese, Fijian, Filipino, Finnish, French, Frisian, Friulian, Galician, Gallegan, Genoese, German, Glosa, Guarani, Haitian Creole, Hawaiian, Hiligaynon, Hmong Daw, Hopi, Hungarian, Ibanag, Icelandic, Ilokano, Indonesian, Interlingua, Irish, Irish Gaelic, Istro-Romanian, Italian, Japanese transliteration, Jèrriais, Kapampangan, Kashubian, Kiribati, Koongo, Korean transliteration, Kurdish, Ladin (Gardena), Ladin (Valle di Badia), Languedocien, Latin, Latvian, Lithuanian, Lojban, Lombard, Low Saxon, Lower Sorbian, Luxembourgeois, Macedo-Romanian, Malagasy, Malay (Latinized), Maltese, Manx, Maori, Marshallese, Megleno-Romanian, Míkmaq, Mohawk, Montenegrin (Latinized), Náhuatl, Naxi (Latinized), Norfolk/Pitcairnese, Norwegian, Nyanja, Occitan, Oromo, Pangasinan, Papiamento, Pedi, Piedmontese, Polish, Portuguese, Potawatomi, Quechua, Romanian, Romansch, Rotokas, Rundi, Saint Lucia Creole, Inari Sami, Lule Sami, Samoan, Sardinian, Scots Gaelic, Serbian (Latinized), Seychelles Creole, Shona, Sicilian, Slovak, Slovene, Somali, Sorbian, South Ndebele, Southern Sotho, Spanish, Swahili, Swati, Swedish, Tagalog, Tahitian, Tausug, Tetum, Tok Pisin, Tongan, Tswana, Turkish, Turkmen (Latinized), Tuvalu, Upper Sorbian, Uyghur (Latinized), Veps, Volapük, Votic, Walloon, Walpiri, Welsh, Xhosa, Zhuang, and Zulu.
All editions of Whitney include the modern (monotonic) Greek alphabet. Instead of imposing the structure of the Latin alphabet, Whitney’s Greek characters reflect both their historical origins and the expectations of contemporary readers, and employ strategies to address the unique qualities of the Greek language itself. (Where Latin typefaces typically favor repeated forms in visually related letters such as b, d, p and q, three of the most common characters in Greek — α, ο, and σ — share easily-confused features that must be visually disambiguated.) Whitney Greek was designed by H&Co in consultation with Gerry Leonidas, Senior Lecturer in Typography at the University of Reading.
Whitney Extended Cyrillic
The number of letters in the Cyrillic alphabet depends on a reader’s geographic and historic circumstances. The 45-letter alphabet developed by Byzantine missionaries in the ninth century lost eight letters to the reforms of Peter the Great, and an additional four under the Bolsheviks. While the remaining 33 letters satisfied the Russian language, the expansion of the Soviet Union brought the application of Cyrillic to unrelated language groups, including Turkic, Uralic, Tungusic, Caucasian, and Mongolic languages. New phonemes were addressed not only through the application of accent marks, but through the expansion of the alphabet itself. As a result, there are nearly as many Cyrillic localizations as there are languages: the alphabets of neighboring Russia and Ukraine differ by four letters, Bulgaria borrows thirty letters from the Russian alphabet (but draws sixteen of them differently), and the Azeri language of Azerbaijan — spoken by as many as thirty million people, and codified five different ways since 1918 — includes one letter used nowhere else in the world.
A survey into linguistic, cultural, political, economic, and technological conditions in the region, along with a review of typography created by native speakers, led to H&Co’s Cyrillic-X character set, which is included standard in all editions of Whitney. Consulting with H&Co on the project were two Cyrillists: Maxim Zhukov, former Typographic Coordinator to the United Nations, and Ilya Ruderman, creator of the Type & Typography program at the British Higher School of Art and Design in Moscow.
The Cyrillic-X™ character set covers Abaza, Adyghe, Aghul, Archi, Avar, Azeri, Bashkir, Belarusian, Bosnian (Cyrillized), Bulgarian, Russia Buriat, Chechen (Cyrillized), Chuvash, Crimean Turkish, Dargwa, Dungan, Erzya, Ingush, Juhuri, Kabardian, Kalmyk, Karachay-Balkar, Kazakh, Khalkha (Cyrillized), Kirghiz, Komi, Komi-Permyak, Kumyk, Lak, Lezgi, Macedonian, Hill Mari, Meadow Mari, Moksha, Moldovan (Cyrillized), Mongolian, Montenegrin (Cyrillized), Nanai, Nogai, Old Russian, Ossetian, Russian, Rusyn, Rutul, Serbian (Cyrillized), Southern Altai, Tabassaran, Tajik, Tatar (Cyrillized), Tati, Tsakhur, Tundra Yukaghir, Turkmen (Cyrillized), Tuvin, Udi, Udmurt, Ukrainian, Uyghur (Cyrillized), and Uzbek.
Three of the most widely-spoken languages that use the Cyrillic alphabet exhibit morphological differences in their alphabets, without which their host languages can look foreign. For Bulgarian readers who prefer greater consistency among their romans and italics, Whitney features a localization that imports a number of cursive italic constructions back into the upright roman: in applications that allow a language to be identified, Bulgarian text (tagged BGR) will use variants of the roman characters Л, Ф, в, г, д, ж, и, й, к, л, п, т, ц, ш, щ, and ю, and italic characters Л, Ф, в, д, ж, к, and ю. For Serbian and Macedonian, text tagged SRB or MKD will use variants of the roman character б, and the italic characters б, г, д, п, т and ш.